Environmental Project

Florida Brownfields Program Golf Course Remediation and Redevelopment

Commercial Real Estate Development Company Miami-Dade County, FL

Solution Overview

Apex employees providing soil and groundwater testing on the brownfields site


Commercial real estate development company

Business Challenge:

  • Redevelopment of a golf course contaminated with arsenic, in tandem with construction and related earthwork activities


  • A comprehensive assessment and regulator approved Soil Management Plan (SMP)
  • Remediation of arsenic in groundwater using an in situ chemical reduction
  • Coordination with developers to ensure design considerations for contaminated soil
  • Preparation of Engineering Control (EC) and Engineering Control Maintenance Plans (ECMP) for the warehouses, a park and road, and a lift station


  • Successful remediation and redevelopment of the site under Florida’s Brownfields program, returning it to the tax base
  • Over $1M in tax credits to the developer through the Voluntary Cleanup Tax Credit program


Apex was retained to conduct site assessment (including a Sampling Work Plan) and remediation during redevelopment of a former golf course by a prominent national developer. Apex conducted Phase I and Phase II environmental site assessments (ESAs) and completed a Combined Site Assessment Report and Soil Management Plan (SMP, Chapter 62‑780.450 FAC) which was approved by the Miami‑Dade County Division of Environmental Resources Management (DERM). The primary contaminant of concern at the site was arsenic. The SMP included waste management provisions.


Apex successfully oversaw soil remediation in the form of soil management during construction of a warehouse on the former golf course. Soil management activities also included daily air monitoring and compliance with a site-specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP). Contaminated soil was placed in areas suitable for re-use including beneath building pads, asphalt-paved roads and a 2-ft clean soil cap. Apex prepared an Interim Soil Management and a Final Soil Management Report. Apex profiled and oversaw disposal of non-hazardous sediment and organic material.

Apex conducted groundwater monitoring before, during, and after construction and obtained off-site access for installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Groundwater monitoring is ongoing. Apex conducted a detailed hydrogeological investigation in an area where arsenic concentrations exceeded cleanup target levels (CTLs). Innovative assessment technologies were used, including Hydraulic Profiling Tool (HPT) to characterize contaminant flow paths. Using the results of the hydrogeological investigation, Apex prepared a feasibility study evaluating eight remedial technologies for advantages, obstacles, approximate costs, and regulatory considerations. Apex designed a pilot test plan to address the arsenic in groundwater in this area; the selected remedial design was in-situ chemical reduction designed to convert arsenic into arsenopyrite. The Pilot Test Plan presented details of the in-situ chemical reduction remedial design, including amendment composition, injection, and monitoring details.

Apex implemented the pilot test plan once approved by regulatory agencies. Apex has conducted two rounds of injections and is monitoring the progress of remediation. Apex also prepared three separate EC and ECMP for the warehouses, a park and road, and a lift station. ECMPs included inspection logs for ECs.

All plans and reports for this project were signed and sealed by a Florida professional geologist (PG) or professional engineer (PE).


Key to the success of this project was the inclusion of a cleanup plan during the development planning; Apex participated in pre-construction meetings with the developer and engineers so that construction, earthwork/soil management and drainage design were tailored to a contaminated site.

Cleanup activities were conducted under Florida’s Brownfields program. To date, the developer has received over $1M in tax credits through the Voluntary Cleanup Tax Credit program. Redevelopment of the large, unused tract of former golf course land put the property back on local tax rolls and created numerous jobs in conjunction with occupants of the warehouses in an area that benefits from economic redevelopment.

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